Is there a way to implement IndexNow on a Hugo website?

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As far as I know, through Hugo no. You may through some actions on hosting providers, but hugo do not have ability to generate POST responses.

There might be ways, but two things are issues here:

  • GoHugo does not know what pages are updated/new from the last time you ran hugo. IndexNow works on the submission of changed or new pages. If you can create a file containing all changed URLs from the last time you pinged, then you can let GoHugo ping the search engines you wish to notify. But this is a feature that has nothing to do with the website itself, but with the after-deployment process. When you run hugo on your site, the new pages are NOT available online yet, so you are announcing changes that do not exist yet. If the search engines are faster than your deployment process you loose trustworthiness.

  • Google abandoned pings and expects you to have proper changefreq and priority instead in your sitemaps. So indexnow procedures will not work with Google. Are the other services you know important enough in the total scope of your site to create an integrated solution for this?

Better have proper sitemaps, and use the webmaster consoles of your preferred search engines to register your sitemaps.

Yes, I know Google does not use it, and I do have proper sitemaps and rss feeds. But Bing does support IndexNow. Bing even removed the submit URLs option. Bing replaced the submit URLs option by IndexNow.

No it doesn’t.
You using URL Inspection, putting URL through there (Inspect) and then you are presented with button Request indexing.

You can get google to index pretty quickly by using their indexing api. Here is how GitHub - swalker-888/google-indexing-api-bulk: Submit URLs in bulk to Google's Indexing API using a batch request Also you can have it deindex. It actually listens to your requests.

Would only worry about chatgpt Search Engine Market Share Worldwide | Statcounter Global Stats

Bing had a option to add and submit multiple URLs at once. They removed it.

The bulk, yes, the individual still working.

This much longer point is still valid. Reporting the updates to whatever search engine you chose is something that you have to do AFTER you deploy your site, which is long AFTER GoHugo creates your site. The max it can do is to create a file that contains all changes between your deploys and then use that in a bash or javascript to send to your indexing-endpoint. You need to somehow have a list of content files that were changed last time and then compare against the new state.

If I would have to or want to do that I would create some form of workflow script that compares git commites and when content files are changed retrieves the URLs and POSTs them. Outside of GoHugo.