After reading this article, I am sceptical of using Hugo for my maths-based blog.
OK. (that was going to be my reply, but it was too short)
Hugo is a static website generator. If something else work best for you (math, or otherwise), then use it. Luckily I am not into math.
A smart way to use Mathematical expressions
Use the tools that works best. Hugo is good for many things but one tool can never be best at everything.
It looks like https://quarto.org is specifically built for scientific publishing so no surprise if it is really good at things like math.